Distance from the Sun
Perihelion 147,100,000 km
Aphelion 152,100,000 km
Mean distance 149,597,890 km (1.000 AU)
Year length 365.2425 E-d
Orbital eccentricity 0.0167
Orbital inclination 0.0°
Solar day 24 h
Sidereal day 23 h 56' 4.2"
Rotational inclination 23.45°
Mass 5,973,700,000,000,000,000,000 t
Mean radius 6,378.14 km
Mean density 5.515 g/cm3
Average surface temperature 15 °C
February 24, +1582 E Past
October 15, +1582 E Past
Earth is the fifth-largest planet and the third from the Sun. Its mass is 5,973,700,000,000,000,000,000 t. Earth’s equatorial diameter is 2303 km while its polar diameter is only 12711.1 km.
Earth is considered a solid mass, yet it has a large, liquid iron, magnetic core with a radius of 3475.44 km. Surprisingly, it has a solid inner core that may be a large iron crystal, with a radius of 1222.84 km. Around the core is a thick shell, or mantle, of dense rock. This mantle is composed of materials rich in iron and magnesium. It is somewhat plastic-like, and under slow steady pressure, it can flow like a liquid. The mantle, in turn, is covered by a thin crust forming the solid granite and basalt base of the continents and ocean basins. Over broad areas of Earth’s surface, the crust has a thin cover of sedimentary rock such as sandstone, shale, and limestone formed by weathering and by deposits of sands, clays, and plant and animal remains.
#. Month Spans
1. January 31
2. February 28-29
3. March 31
4. April 30
5. May 31
6. June 30
7. July 31
8. August 31
9. September 30
10. October 31
11. November 30
12. December 31
January was named after Janus, protector of the gateway to heaven.
February was named Februalia, a time period when sacrifices were made to atone for sins.
March was named for Mars, the god of war, signifying that fighting interrupted by the winter could be resumed.
April is from aperire, Latin for “to open” (buds).
May was named after Maia, the goddess of growth of plants.
June is from Junius, Latin for the goddess Juno
July was named after Julius Caesar.
August was named after Augustus, the first Roman Emperor
September is from septem, Latin for seven.
October is from octo, Latin for eight.
November is from novem, Latin for nine.
December is from decem, Latin for ten.
Earth, our home planet, is the only planet in our solar system known to harbor life - life that is incredibly diverse. All of the things we need to survive are provided under a thin layer of atmosphere that separates us from the uninhabitable void of space. Earth is made up of complex, interactive systems that are often unpredictable. Air, water, land, and life - including humans - combine forces to create a constantly changing world that we are striving to understand.
Viewing Earth from the unique perspective of space provides the opportunity to see Earth as a whole. Scientists around the world have discovered many things about our planet by working together and sharing their findings.
Some facts are well known. For instance, Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest in the solar system. Earth’s diameter is just a few hundred kilometers larger than that of Venus. The four seasons are a result of Earth’s axis of rotation being tilted more than 23 degrees.
The temperature inside this Earth increases about -17.22°C with every 30.48 to 60.96 m in depth, in the upper 100 km of Earth, and reaches nearly 4426.67 to 4982.22°C at the center. The heat is believed to come from radioactivity in the rocks, pressures within Earth, and the original heat of formation.
Earth’s atmosphere is a blanket composed of 78 percent nitrogen, 21 percent oxygen, and one percent argon. Present in minute quantities are carbon dioxide, hydrogen, neon, helium, krypton, and xenon. Water vapor displaces other gases and varies from nearly zero to about four percent by volume. The atmosphere rests on Earth’s surface with a weight equivalent to a layer of water 10.36 m deep. For about 91440 m upward, the gases remain in the proportions stated. Gravity holds the gases to Earth. The weight of the air compresses it at the bottom so that the greatest density is at Earth’s surface. Pressure and density decreases as height increases.
Greenwich Mean Time is the universal time. Greenwich is a town in Britain on the Prime Meridian of Earth. Each time zone is near a 15° E/W line. In-fact that is the waters and sky rule: add or subtract an hour for every 15° E/W line crossed depending on direction traveled. Sun dials to recognized time zones, but not daylight savings time (DST). When the time zones were first getting started there was 1,669.756 km between each of them; measuring clockwise from Earth’s Origin Point (0° E/W, 0° N/S). They were made into the shapes they are now because of man. On the map on the previous page 25.4 mm = 1,577.725 km. For lunar time zones should Earth get a lunar colony: 454.513 km between each measuring clockwise around from its Origin Point. The lunar colony would still use the Gregorian for day-to-day planning of activities. The leap year on Earth falls every four Earth years, omitted every 100 E-y, and added back every 400 E-y. The leap day is February 29. The Gregorian is currently the most accurate calendar on Earth; its Ls is the anti-meridian the 180° line. The 180° is also what International Date Line follows. To remember the lengths of the months: “30 E-d has September, April, June and November; all others have 31 E-d; except February which has 28-29 E-d.” The Earth has a seven-day week cycle on the calendar for religious purposes. This makes religion easy. This week cycle has not been interrupted for millennia on Earth even with the calendar changes. It dates back to Biblical times. It is what we understand. Some other week cycles have been tried, but all others have been rejected by the public. We should stick with the seven-day week cycle.
The seven days in our week are:
7 E-d Name Meanings
1 Sunday Sun’s day
2 Monday Moon’s day
3 Tuesday Mars’ day
4 Wednesday Mercury’s day
5 Thursday Jupiter’s day
6 Friday Venus’ day
7 Saturday Saturn’s day
The Gregorian has an epoch of Jesus Christ’s birth; which is December 25, +0 E. JD count for the Gregorian current calculation is from November 23, -4713; JDN = (1461*(Y+4800+(M− 14)/12))/4+(367*(M−2−12*((M−14)/12)))/12−(3*((Y+4900+(M−14)/12)/100))/4+D–32075; which is 1,721,419 on Gregorian Tuesday, December 25, +0 E. Example: 2,455,101 on Gregorian September 26, +2009 E; the decimal of a JD is unimportant just drop the decimal, it’s a quirk. Y = current Earth year, M = current Earth month, and D = current Earth day; get information from calendar. JD count does not change from calendar to calendar or from planet to planet, it is always the same no matter where you are in the Universe. Astronomical Year Numbering is when a year 0 is used: A.D. dates remain the same and B.C. dates are pushed back a year (1, 2, 3, and 4 … B.C. is 0, -1, -2, and -3 …). Without this a year 0 would appear on the Gregorian. A.D. is Anno Domini in the year of Christ our Lord and B.C. is before Christ. The current Earth year is +2009 E. This calendar begins with January 1. This is a vernal equinox calendar, it is non-perpetual. The seasons fall like this: March 21 is vernal equinox, June 21 is summer solstice, September 21 is autumnal equinox, and December 21 is winter solstice; sometimes jump back or forward a day. January 4 is perihelion and July 4 is aphelion. There are many holidays on Earth. All of which can be gotten by looking at a calendar: Christmas, Thanksgiving, and Halloween just name a few. The Gregorian is the current calendar and has been since 1582. There are very few inaccuracies with the Gregorian. The Gregorian does have a lunar section, contrary to popular belief. It is a lunar-solar calendar, not just solar. The ages are start school at five Earth years, drive at 16 E-y, vote at and end school at 18 E-y, legal to drink alcohol at 21 E-y, and retire at 65 E-y. The length of a workday is 8 h. This is what we know.
Rough drafts information:
We have been tracking our planets progress every since man first said, “ur the Sun rises and it sets.” Truly I do not know how cavemen would have seen that or described it, but that is where the measuring of Earth-time began.
Calendars in widespread use today include the Gregorian calendar, which is the de facto international standard, and is used almost everywhere in the world for civil purposes, including in the People’s Republic of China and India (along with the Indian national calendar). Due to the Gregorian calendar’s obvious connotations of Western Christianity, non-Christians and even some Christians sometimes justify its use by replacing the traditional era notations “AD” and “BC” (“Anno Domini” and “Before Christ”) with “CE” and “BCE” (“Common Era” and “Before Common Era”). [I don’t care how much this may offend others, but I will never stop using the traditional era notations. In my opinion those are the only correct era notations.] The Hindu calendars are some of the most ancient calendars of the world. Eastern Christians of Eastern Europe and western Asia used for a long time the Julian calendar, which of the old Orthodox Church, in countries likes Russia. For over 1500 years, Westerners used the Julian calendar also. While the Gregorian calendar is widely used in Israel’s business and day-to-day affairs, the Hebrew calendar, used by Jews worldwide for religious and cultural affairs, also influences civil matters in Israel (such as national holidays) and can be used there for business dealings (such as for the dating of checks).
The Iranian (Persian) calendar is used in Iran and Afghanistan. The Islamic calendar is used by most non-Iranian Muslims worldwide. The Chinese, Hebrew, Hindu, and Julian calendars are widely used for religious and/or social purposes. The Ethiopian calendar or Ethiopic calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and Eritrea. In Thailand, where the Thai solar calendar is used, the months and days have adopted the western standard, although the years are still based on the traditional Buddhist calendar.
Even where there is a commonly used calendar such as the Gregorian calendar, alternate calendars may also be used, such as a fiscal calendar or the astronomical year numbering system.
A fiscal calendar (such as a 4/4/5 calendar) fixes each month at a specific number of weeks to facilitate comparisons from month to month and year to year. January always has exactly 4 weeks (Sunday through Saturday), February has 4 weeks, March has 5 weeks, etc. Note that this calendar will normally need to add a 53rd week to every 5th or 6th year, which might be added to December or might not be, depending on how the organization uses those dates. There exists an international standard way to do this (the ISO week). The ISO week starts on a Monday, and ends on a Sunday. Week 1 is always the week that contains 4 January in the Gregorian calendar.
Fiscal calendars are also used by businesses. This is where the fiscal year is just any set of 12 months. This set of 12 months can start and end at any point on the Gregorian calendar. This is the most common usage of fiscal calendars.
The applications for this calendar are used in everyday life. Some examples of this are in fiscal years and in schools’ academic years. Below is a table of Earth’s United States school system set up. I would like to suggest a millisecond counter for Earth’s clock.
You run into this calendar everywhere you go on Earth. It is Earth’s de facto civil calendar. So the uses are quite wide ranged. There really ain’t a better way to explain it. Earth’s color will be green for the purpose of interplanetary use. To be born anywhere in the universe whether orbiting a star or not Earth-time is the default for the human race. Although a JD count would not change no matter where you are in the universe it is hard to measure age with a JD count in my experience. The JD count would be used for interplanetary trade, commerce, and business. This will be to keep every on the same plane of time. So as to not be too confusing all JD counts will be shown along with the planet and Earth times for wherever the product is being shipped from.
Human evolution does occur. We were created by God (Jehovah) whose son is Jesus Christ, in the beginning; in His image. After this occurred evolution started; so that the humans that are alive today are not the same humans that God created. This is what I believe. Scientists cannot find a “missing link” because there ain’t a “missing link!!” Humans did not evolve from apes, humans evolved from themselves (other humans). Below is a table of humanities evolution.
humanity scientific classification
Genus Sahelanthropus, Orrorin, Ardipithecus, Kenyanthropus, Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and Homo
Yes as you can see I do believe that humans are primates, but we did not evolve from any other kind of primate. We evolved from ourselves. There is no “missing link.” All species listed above are humans, period. Here is what scientists classified these species as:
S. tchadensis; O. tugenensis; Ar. ramidus; Ar. kadabba; K. platyops; Au. anamensis; Au. afarensis;
Au. bahrelghazali; Au. africanus; Au. garhi; P. aethiopicus; P. boisei; P. robustus; H. habilis;
H. rudolfensis; H. georgicus; H. ergaster; H. erectus, H. e. lantianensis, H. e. palaeojavanicus,
H. e. pekinensis, H. e. nankinensis, H. e. wushanensis, H. e. yuanmouensis, H. e. soloensis;
H. cepranensis; H. antecessor; H. heidelbergensis; H. neanderthalensis; H. rhodesiensis;
H. floresiensis; and H. sapiens, H. s. idaltu, H. s. sapiens
This is what modern man currently is: H. s. sapiens. This is what I believe we’re fated to evolve into next for Earth-bound humans only: H. superior, H. robustus. You do not have to agree with me; truly I do not care if you do. The H. superior may already exist; they are the people with special brain powers like: telekinesis, telepathy, precognitions, teleportation, etc. There are also the people with physical mutations, which act as benefits. The H. robustus does not exist yet because cyborgs, people with artificial computerized limbs/body-parts, have not started to be well born with them; that or humans haven’t gotten to the point where we are genetically engineering our offspring yet. One of those two things would have to occur in-order for H. robustus to exist. The life span of a human is: 120 E-y.
day 24 h
clock 12 h face
year 365.2425 E-d
common year 365 E-d
leap year 366 E-d
placement February 29
formula +4 E-y; -100 E-y, +400 E-y
distance 1 AU
week 7 E-d
Universal time Greenwich Mean Time
covers check map page 19
epoch 12/25/+0000 E 1,721,419
seasons spring March 21
summer June 21
fall September 21
winter December 21
ages start school at 5 E-y
drive at 16 E-y
vote at 18 E-y
drink alcohol at 21 E-y
retire at 65 E-y
work 8 h
competitors yes and no few
Here’s another calendar that I have been working on to track time on Earth. This particular calendar is based on the Zodiac System. I used this system just because it’s familiar and simple to understand. I think that this particular calendar would be a little more accurate than the Gregorian we have now. I call this calendar the Jeremiahn Earth Zodiac Calendar, Jeremiahn Variant Calendar Eight. The following table shows you how this calendar works.
sign range seasons
names symbol traditional sidereal drift trad sidereal drift
begin end begin end begin end
Aries 3/21 4/19 4/14 5/14 4/20 5/14 spring spring spring
Taurus 4/20 5/20 5/15 6/14 5/15 6/21 spring summer summer
Gemini 5/21 6/20 6/15 7/14 6/22 7/20 summer summer summer
Cancer 6/21 7/22 7/15 8/14 7/21 8/10 summer summer summer
Leo 7/23 8/22 8/15 9/13 8/11 9/16 summer fall fall
Virgo 8/23 9/22 9/14 10/14 9/17 10/31 fall fall fall
Libra 9/23 10/22 10/15 11/13 11/1 11/21 fall fall fall
Scorpio 10/23 11/21 11/14 12/14 11/22 12/8 fall winter winter
Sagittarius 11/22 12/21 12/15 1/13 12/9 1/20 winter winter winter
Capricorn 12/22 1/19 1/14 2/12 1/21 2/16 winter winter winter
Aquarius 1/20 2/19 2/13 3/14 2/17 3/12 winter spring spring
Pisces 2/20 3/20 3/15 4/13 3/13 4/19 spring spring spring
This next table shows you where the leap day falls and where the seasons fall.
sign leap year seasonal markers
names symbol trad sidereal drift traditional sidereal drift
Aries vernal equinox
Taurus Aries 1 Pisces 5 Pisces 3
Cancer summer solstice
Leo Cancer 1 Gemini 6 Taurus 38
Libra Pisces 9 Aquarius 13 Aquarius 17 autumnal equinox
Scorpio Libra 1 Virgo 5 Virgo 6
Capricorn leap day winter solstice
Aquarius leap day leap day Sagittarius 31 Sagittarius 5 Sagittarius 11
I have it setup so that the leap day falls on Pisces when the year is divisible by four unless it’s a centurial year. Leap centurial years only occur when the centurial year is divisible by 400. The leap days shown in the table above are trying to make them fall on the same day that our leap year falls on. This is how it works for the traditional system. The only difference in the drift system is that the leap day falls in Aquarius instead of Pisces. The reason I have it setup this way is so that the leap day lines up with the one on the Gregorian. The year numbering for this calendar is identical to that in the Gregorian calendar. This means that if the current year is 2011 then it is still numbered 2011 even on this system. As you can see this calendar begins with the vernal equinox, which means that the years don’t change with Gregorian, which is for the traditional calendar. The vernal equinox for the drift calendar is Pisces 3. The vernal equinox on the sidereal version of my calendar is Pisces 5. I think that this makes this calendar more accurate. I am not sure that my drift calculations will hold out over time, you may need to recalculate those every now and then. I think it is ok for now though. I ran some numbers for a sidereal version of this calendar as well.
 Joyce, Alan C. Planets of the Solar System, Venus. World Almanac. Ed 1. Vol 1. 2008. 328.
 Rowen, Beth. Calendars. Time for kids Almanac. Ed 1. Vol 1. 2004. 49-53.
 Rowen, Beth. Space. Time for kids Almanac. Ed 1. Vol 1. 2006. 219.
 http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/.html. Fact Monster.© 2000–2007 Pearson Education, publishing as Fact Monster. 02 Oct. 2009 <http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0855474.html>.
 Genesis 6:3