Distance from the Sun
Perihelion 206,600,000 km
Aphelion 249,200,000 km
Mean distance 227,936,640 km (1.524 AU)
Year length 686.98 E-d
Orbital eccentricity 0.0935
Orbital inclination 1.85°
Solar day 24 h 39' 35.244"
Sidereal day 24 h 37' 22"
Rotational inclination 3.13°
Mass 641,850,000,000,000,000,000 t
Mean radius 3,397 km
Mean density 3.94 g/cm3
Average surface temperature -62.78 °C
August 17, +2009 E 9:03 AM
September 29, +2009 E 2:20 PM
May 7, +1068 M 09h05'46.069"
June 23, +1068 M 14h24'23.020"
A Calendar for Mars
My calendar is the Jeremiahn Calendar; hopefully it will become Mars’ World Calendar, just like ours is the Gregorian. This calendar should still base Earth as its central. Thus the human colonists on Mars would have hanging up next to each other at all times: Gregorian or Earth Calendar with the Jeremiahn or Martian One next to it. You would have to base Earth as a central or you would get way too confused in when measuring time. A “sol” is one rotation of Mars. A sol is 24.6598 h (24 h 39' 35.244"); its orbit or year is 686.973 E-d, or 668.592 M-d (668 M-d 14 h 35' 54.97"). This means that the sol is only 2.749% longer than a day. NASA’s Martian clock just took and lengthened all Earth measurements of time by this percentage. That is 39' 35.244" longer than a day. I shall use our hours, minutes, and seconds. I will count 24 h 39' 35.244" before ticking to the next sol. To do this I will use a millisecond counter. The “sol” is the base unit. I shall divide its year into 24 months; span 27-29 M-d each. Most of my month lengths can be explained by mathematics. It has a 668 M-d common Mars year and a 669 M-d leap Mars year. This is simple and easy to understand for everyone to grasp. This calendar does start with one on its year count. This calendar uses the English zodiac on its Zodiacal months. This is an easy calendar. This is simple and easy to understand. I find it quite easy to grasp. Mars is 227,936,640 km (1.524 AU) from the Sun, which gives it a longer year. Named for the Roman god of war, the “Red Planet” has some features much like Earth. Mars has climate, seasons, volcanoes, and possibly once had liquid water flowing across its surface.
#. months spans #. months spans
1. January 28 13. Leo 28
2. Terra 28 14. Virgo 28
3. Pisces 28 15. Libra 28
4. February 28-29 16. August 28
5. Aries 28 17. Scorpio 28
6. April 27 18. September 28
7. Taurus 28 19. Sagittarius 27
8. Gemini 28 20. October 28
9. May 28 21. Capricorn 28
10. June 28 22. November 28
11. Cancer 28 23. Aquarius 28
12. July 27 24. December 27
Eventually if the colony ever got big enough we would need to develop time zones as well. I would do this similar to the Earth’s time zones; which is add or subtract an hour every 15° E/W of the Prime Meridian, respectively. On Mars the GMT equivalent is Airy-0 Mean Time; this will establish other time zones. Airy-0 is the crater that Mars’ Prime Meridian passes through. I will leave the naming of these time zones up to someone else, as well as the official placement of them. When measuring from the Mars’ Origin Point (0º E/W, 0º N/S) going clockwise there is 865.537 km between each time zone. If you put a colony on Phobos then each time zone would cover 2.828 km, measuring clockwise around it from its Origin Point. With Deimos then each time zone would cover 1.58 km, measuring clockwise around it from its Origin Point. Each moon would still use the Jeremiahn Calendar for planning sol-to-sol activities. Figuring out a leap year for Mars is tricky, considering it is different from Earth. Its leap year falls every odd year, every 10 M-y, a leap year is omitted every 100 M-y, and a centurial leap year every 500 M-y. The leap sol is February 29. Why such a confusing leap year, because Mars in itself is confusing. This calendar has an accuracy of 7,566,666 M-y, its Ls is the anti-meridian. To remember the lengths of the months say: “28 M-d has all months; except April, July, Sagittarius, and December which have 27 M-d; and February has 28-29 M-d,” and to remember their order say: “January spotted Terra, a Pisces, February joined later, an Aries, April walked with them, a Taurus, Gemini was their friend: May. Meanwhile June, a Cancer, met with July, a Leo. Later a Virgo and a Libra meet August, a Scorpio, at the local dance club. September, a Sagittarius, met with October, a Capricorn, and left their roommates November, an Aquarius, and December.” This calendar does keep the religious seven-sol week-cycle. This will make it more acceptable for the religious groups, making religion on Mars easy. This is in contrast to Thomas Gangale’s need to shorten the week to six sols in his, Darian, calendar. Mars can easily be seen with the naked eye on most clear nights, which is why it was one of the first planets to be studied by ancient astronomers. Later, when telescopes came into use, many observers claimed that canals made by Martians existed on the planet’s surface, which led to speculation as to whether there was intelligent life there. Unmanned probes have since put all those theories to rest; the canals turned out to be topographic patterns and dust storms. Although Mars’ orbital path is nearly circular, it is somewhat eccentric than that of most other planets; Mars is 42,600,000 km farther from the Sun at its most distant point compared to its closest approach. Its orbit and speed in relation to Earth’s bring it fairly close to Earth about every two Earth years. Every 15-17 E-y the close approaches are especially favorable for observation. Mars rotates in 24 h 37', almost the same period of time as Earth.
The seven sols of my Martian week are:
7 M-d name meaning
1 Sunsol Sunday (weekend)
2 Mondesol Phobos’ + Deimos’ day
3 Erdesol Earth’s day
4 Wednesol Wednesday
5 Thursol Thursday
6 Frisol Friday
7 Satursol Saturday (weekend).
The epoch NASA likes to use is Galileo Galilei’s first observations of Mars with a telescope, +1609 E. This epoch was first suggested by Peter Kokh. This would be the Before Galileo Galilei’s telescopic observation of Mars (BGM) and Current observation of Mars (CGM). This would make the current Martian year be 213 CGM. Another popular epoch among Mars calendars is the Viking mission, +1975 E. This epoch was first suggested by Thomas Gangale. This would be the Before the Viking mission (BV) and After the Viking mission (AV). This would make the current Mars year be 18 AV. But the epoch I will use is Jesus Christ’s birth. The JD count is 1,721,419. The epoch formula for Mars is: ((y*365.2425*24)/24.6598)/668.592; y = current Earth year, round to nearest whole number. This would make current Mars year be +1068 M. +1068 M started on January 1, +2009 E and will end on November 18, +2010 E; November 19, +2010 E will start +1069 M. This calendar begins with January 1. This is a Vernal Equinox calendar for Mars, it is non-perpetual. The seasons will fall like this: Terra 22 is Vernal Equinox, May 20 is Summer Solstice, August 3 is Autumnal Equinox, and Capricorn 6 is Winter Solstice; all jump back a sol on leap Mars years. Taurus 4 is aphelion and October 4 is perihelion. The holisols are as follows: February 25 is Mars Sol, Taurus 20 is Exploration Sol, and Foundation Sol is the first sol that the first colony was established on Mars. NASA fiddled with the Martiana calendar during the Viking missions, but that does not make it the calendar for Mars. There are no inaccuracies in my calculations. This will be more accepted by religious groups. NASA has currently not decided on an independent calendar to use for timekeeping on Mars. None of the other calendars I looked at had a good enough leap year system on them. Mine is much more accurate than any of theirs. My main competitors on these secular calendars that have been proposed for Mars are: Blort, Becker, Cronin, Naughton-O’Meara, and Woods-Gangale. They’re all secular so no Christian would be willing to use them. Only three of them give you back the proper year with their epochs. Two of them are perpetual. Three of them are not based on the Vernal Equinox. One, Naughton-O’Meara, has a need to shorten the week to six sols. These factors combined would make all Christians hate them! The age equivalencies are start school at three Mars years, drive at nine Mars years, vote at and end school at 10 M-y, get drunk at 11 M-y, and retire at 34 M-y. The length of a worksol is 8 h 13' 12". This is simple. Posted by J.S. at 2:00 PM Applications information: To talk evolution, I believe that people born on this planet could evolve into: Homo martianus. Anyways people would set up everything to this calendar. The fiscal year would become just a cycle of any 24 calendar months. When shipping between planets though everything would converted to the JD count or Earth-time. Now to talk the academic year, this would be quite different from Earth. So as to not get confused in the table below I will equate it to Earth-time for you. Our Mars year fixer will be 1070 M, so 1071 M will start on April 27, 2014 E, and will end on March 14, 2016 E. The planet time is secondary. The planet time is tracked independently from Earth-time, but it is not shown apart from Earth-time. Therefore color codes are used: Mars is red, Earth is green.
Mars Earth-time grades ages grades ages grades
P 3 k 5 p
K 4 1 6 k
1 7 1 2 5
2 8 2 3 9
3 4 6 3 10
4 5 11
5 6 7 4 12
6 7 13
7 8 8 5 14
8 9 15 9 10
9 6 16
10 11 17
11 12 10 7 18
The importance of these applications is: because you were born on a different planet. If we were to measure you age in Earth-time we would not be getting an accurate image of how old you actually are. By setting everything to the new planet, Mars, an accurate image of age and operations is given. The operations image explains why companies would set their fiscal year to the planet time, Mars. Without it set to planet time, Mars, and not Earth-time you would not get an accurate image of these company/business operations. As far as holidays/holisols go there calendar would show both. The holidays on Mars, most of them would be celebrated twice per year; the holisols would be celebrated once per year. Four practical purposes when February on the Mars calendar has 29 M-d that’ll be called a “common year,” when it has 28 M-d that’ll be called a “subtraction year,” and when it has 29 M-d on a centurial year that’ll be called a “leap year.” This simplicity is because February on the Mars calendar will have 29 M-d more often than it will have 28 M-d, this is because of the leap year rules. The life span of a human is: 64 M-y. The way these calendars would be sold is near the end of the Martian year, because it is longer than an Earth year. The color coded remains the same for the clocks. All planet time clocks are digital, there is no “a.m./p.m.” style for Mars. The clocks just count 24 h 39' 35.244". Computers meant for Mars would show time the same way. Noon is shown as 12h19'47.670" and midnight is shown as 24h39'35.244". All Earth-time is shown in GMT. The Mars time zones are made just like Earth’s time zones; they are set up to the Martian coordinate system.
If someone was born on Mars their birth certificate would read: “Name: Jason Dennis Smith ###-##-#### Place: New Vegas, United States Mars Colony ##### Room ### St. John’s Hospital #### Federal Street When: June 6, +2026 E @ 2:56 p.m. or September 12, +1077 M @ 04h08'37.191"”
The birth certificate example above only includes what would be different between a regular Earth birth certificate and a birth certificate for someone born on this planet, Mars. Next I will show you an example of what that same person’s divers license would look like, enlarged picture not included. All names in these examples are fake.
“NEW VEGAS Under 21 E-y Until Class DRIVER LICENSE 06-06-+2047 E (F) 01-05-+1088 M License Number N######### SMITH JASON DENNIS #### GRAND ST NEW VEGAS, U.S. MARS ##### Birth-date Expiration Date 06-06-+2026 E 06-06-+2046 E 19-12-+1077 M 19-12-+1087 M Male (height) (weight) (eye color) Restrictions Endorsements (signature)”
common year 668 M-d
leap year 669 M-d
formula +odd, +10 M-y; -100 M-y, +500 M-y
distance 1.524 AU
accuracy 7,566,666 M-y
GMT Airy-0 Mean Time
work 8 h 13' 12.000"
competitors Yes Several
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